How does the Berkey® Systems work?
Berkey® systems are designed to work without the need for electricity or plumbing. They are “off-the-grid” water purifiers and are gravity fed. You can use several sources for providing water including:
· Ponds & Stagnant Ponds
· Tap Water
· Water Storage
The key to the Berkey® systems are the Black Berkey® Purification Elements, commonly referred to as Black Berkeys or Purification Elements. Black Berkeys are the primary filters which are able to purify THESE contaminants from the water. Elements are sold in sets of two. One set of Black Berkey® Purification Elements is rated to purify 6,000 gallons of tap water.
Except for the Sport Berkey® Water Bottle, Berkey® systems include an upper chamber which rests upon a lower chamber when assembled. Think of these as two large open-top canisters. The upper chamber (or canister) has holes in its base into which the Black Berkey® Purification Elements are housed. The upper canister is designed to rest on top of the bottom canister. Essentially, the top chamber is where the water-to-be-purified is poured. The bottom chamber serves as the reservoir for the water that has been purified in the upper chamber, by passing through the Black Berkeys.For individuals wanting to address fluoridation in their water source, please see the paragraph on the PF2 Fluoride/Arsenic Reduction Elements below.
· Travel Berkey®……….holds 1.5 gallons, holds a maximum of 2 Black Berkeys & 2 PF2 Elements
· Big Berkey®……….holds 2.25 gallons, holds a maximum of 4 Black Berkeys & 4 PF2 Elements
· Berkey® Light……….holds 2.75 gallons, holds a maximum of 4 Black Berkeys & 4 PF2 Elements
· Royal Berkey®……….holds 3.25 gallons, holds a maximum of 4 Black Berkeys & 4 PF2 Elements
· Imperial Berkey®……….holds 4 gallons, holds a maximum of 6 Black Berkeys & 6 PF2 Elements
· Crown Berkey®……….holds 6 gallons, holds a maximum of 8 Black Berkeys & 8 PF2 Elements
Except for the Sport and Go Berkeys, all of the bottom chambers of the Berkey® systems contain a spigot which allows the user to access the purified water from the reservoir.
How many Berkey® systems are there?
The total number of Berkey® systems available is eight. The smallest two Berkey® Water Purifiers are the Sport Berkey® and Go Berkey® Kit, and the remaining six are larger size systems with spigots in the bottom chambers. The smallest two purifiers can be considered personal water purifiers, due to their volume of output and compact size.
The Sport Berkey® is made from BPA-free (bisphenol-A) plastic and contains a miniature Black Sport Berkey® Element which has the same purifying power of the Black Berkeys.
The Go Berkey® is a miniature version of the larger stainless-steel Berkey® systems, with the top and bottom chambers made of 304-grade stainless steel, although it does not require a spigot to access the water. The bottom reservoir serves as a large stainless steel cup. The Go Berkey® uses only one Black Berkey® Element: the Short-stem Black Berkey®. When re-ordering a Black Berkey® for the Go Berkey® kit, be sure to order the short-stem element. Short-stem Black Berkeys are only sold in sets of two and cost the same as a set of regular Black Berkey® Elements.
The larger systems, from the Travel Berkey® up to the Crown Berkey® hold volumes of water relative to their dimensions, but each purifies water to the same great quality. The Berkey® Light system is made of copolyester not stainless steel, and like the Sport Berkey®, is BPA-free.
How long do the Black Berkey® Elements last?
Black Berkeys are the primary filters which are able to purify THESE contaminants from the water. Elements are sold in sets of two. One set of Black Berkey® Purification Elements is rated to purify 6,000 gallons of tap water. Since the qualities of raw water sources vary, even among different samples of the same source, tap water is the standard of reference used to establish the 6,000 gallon mark. Water which is free of sediment and low in contaminants will perform closer to the 6,000 gallon lifespan for the Black Berkeys, maybe even surpassing that amount. The key in determining the lifespan of the Black Berkeys is in the production and not their age.
How do I maintain the Black Elements?
Black Berkeys are easily maintained by re-priming and scrubbing with a stiff brush, toothbrush, or slightly abrasive pad, similar to a green/white Scotch-Brite™ pad. Never use warm or hot water or freeze the Black Berkeys as this will likely damage the integrity of the compressed carbon and proprietary impregnated media.
All carbon filters will eventually require replacement, although the life of the Black Berkeys can be extended with routine or necessary maintenance.
How do I know when it’s time to replace the Black Berkey® Elements?
The easiest way to determine that the Black Berkey® Elements are still working properly is to add 1/4 to 1/2 tablespoon of RED food coloring (only red will work) in the top chamber and make sure the water collecting in the bottom chamber is clear and free of the food coloring. It is best to place a glass under each Black Element in the empty bottom chamber so as to differentiate if one/more Black Berkeys are still working properly.
If you are using the optional PF2 Fluoride/Arsenic Reduction Elements with your Berkey® system, please be sure to detach them from the Black Berkeys and remove them from the bottom chamber before performing the Red Food Coloring test.
How do the PF2 Fluoride/Arsenic Reduction Elements work?
The letters P and F in PF2 denote the fact that these are post filters, or additional filters that work in conjunction with the Black Berkeys by attaching directly to them, although the PF2s hang in the bottom chamber of the Berkey® systems. PF2s are designed to be used exclusively with the Black Berkey® Elements and not with any other filters. An equal number of PF2 elements should be used to the number of Black Berkeys used in each Berkey® system.
Example: If a Berkey® Light is configured with 2 Black Berkeys, then an equal number of 2 PF2 elements must be used by attaching one PF2 to each Black Berkey®.
The PF2 Fluoride/Arsenic Reduction Elements contain activated alumina oxide, media recognized and documented by the EPA (amongst others) to remove and reduce fluoride and arsenic, as well as heavy-metals, from contaminated water. Activated alumina oxide is a non-toxic media.
For more details about alumina oxide in the PF2s, read the manufacturer’sFAQs Here
How do I know when it’s time to replace the PF2 Fluoride/Arsenic Reduction Elements?
The PF2s are similar to the Black Berkeys because they are sold in sets of two elements. One set of PF2s is rated to address 1,000 gallons of water. The key in determining the lifespan of the PF2 Fluoride/Arsenic Reduction Elements is in the production and not their age.
How long will the Sport Berkey® Water Filter last?
The Sport Berkey® Water bottle was designed to provide on-demand water purification, equal in purity as the larger multi-element systems. The Sport element is rated to purify 640 refills (~110 gallons) of tap water, or 160 refills (~28 gallons) of questionable quality (i.e. creek, pond, lake water, etc.). An individual using her Sport Berkey® for everyday use might refill her bottle up to three times a day. If she was using it for tap water around the city, taking it to work, to the gym, and at home, at the rate of three refills per day, she could expect to change the Sport Berkey® Element at 7 months of use. She would only need to purchase a Sport Berkey® Replacement Element, not replace the whole water bottle.
The Berkey Secret
Have you ever wondered how Berkey™ purification systems remove pathogenic bacteria, cysts and parasites while extracting chemicals including herbicides, pesticides, organic solvents, VOCs, detergents, cloudiness, silt, sediment, foul tastes and odors? Or, how Berkey™ systems are able to reduce heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, aluminum and other dangerous heavy metals, as well as nitrates and nitrites without removing the healthful and beneficial minerals that your body needs?
And finally, how is this system is able to remove food coloring from water without removing the beneficial minerals your body needs?
The unique Berkey™ design combines the age-old process of micro-porous filtration coupled with modern state-of-the-art technology and the highest quality materials to bring you the finest water purification system available anywhere. The micro-pores within the self-sterilizing and re-cleanable Black Berkey™ purification elements are so small that pathogenic bacteria are simply not able to pass through them.
The media within the elements remove contaminants by a surface phenomenon known as “adsorption” which results from the molecular attraction of substances to the surface of the media. The exclusive purification elements are also impregnated with proprietary “absorbing” media that promote IONIC “absorption” of pollutants within the micro-porous elements.
Another reason Berkey™ systems are so effective in removing contaminants from water is the extremely long “contact period”. Other filtration systems rely on water pressure that forces water molecules through the filter elements at 60-90 PSI. These water molecules come into contact with the filter media for a mere fraction of a second. By comparison water molecules, passing through the “Tortuous Path” structure of the Black Berkey™ purification elements, are drawn gently by gravity and stay in contact with the media for a long period of time. This allows the filter media to be more efficient in capturing contaminates. For example, if you were to hurl 100 steel ball bearings at a large magnet, some would stick but most would bounce off. However, if you were to walk over and gently place the ball bearings on the magnet most, if not all, would adhere to the magnet. Berkey™ systems fully utilize this principle.
This advanced technology was developed, refined, and proven through years of diligent, investigative research and testing performed by water purification specialists, researchers and engineers. The flow rate or time of exposure through the exclusive Black Berkey™ purification elements has been calculated to yield the greatest volume removal of toxic chemicals and pathogenic bacteria found in nature and caused by pollution from industry and agriculture.
I thought that to have a filter with pores fine enough to remove viruses, there should be frequent clogging problems. Is that why some used a bacteria size pore and a secondary disinfectant step (e.g., iodine resin) to kill viruses.
The proprietary filter formulation used in Black Berkey® purification elements makes up for the incredibly small pore size by utilizing an exponentially greater number of micro pores in each purification element than that found in other filter elements. This is the reason Black Berkey® purification elements produce approximately 8 times more water per hour than do other elements. Therefore, while some of the surface pores will clog up from contaminates, it is difficult for such contamination to overwhelm all of the pores and so clog up the filter. Eventually the majority of surface pores may clog up slowing down the flow rate of the Black Berkey® purification elements. When this happens the filter can be refreshed by simply brushing the outside of the element with a ScotchBrite pad or toothbrush. This will remove the surface pores that have become clogged. Therefore, in answer to your question, even though the filters have such small micro fine pores, the element will not clog up prematurely.
How does your filter in the Berkey® system deal with viruses? Possibly with a series of filters with graded pore sizes.? Or is the virus filtration due to the tendency of viruses to clump with bacteria and debris in the water?
The micro fine pores are so small that they prevent micro fine particulate such as bacteria, virus and even food coloring particulate from passing through the tortuous path that water is able to pass through. These contaminates are trapped in the microfine pores while the much smaller H20 molecules are not. Therefore, in answer to your question, this method separates the contaminates from the purified water.
Is the MS2 – Fr Coliphage still known to be a good indicator of virus filtration? At least one article suggests that it might not be. Do you have tests on any other viruses?
MS2 and Fr Coliphage are two separate virus with two different removal characteristics. That is why they are used as surrogates for other types of virus. These virus were selected, by both the EPA and the Military, because of their small size relative to other virus strains and the difficulty in removing both strains. They each are approximates 24-26 nanometers in size which makes them among the smallest of virus. To see their relative size we would suggest that you visit The University of Utah Cell Size and Scale Chart. These virus are comparable in size on that chart to the Rhonivirus. Therefore, in answer to your question, yes MS2 and Fr Coliphage are the ideal virus for use as indicators of a purification systems ability to remove virus.
To understand the difference between the size of path bacteria and viruses, we suggest the following web link as it will give you a great visual of the difference: The University of Utah Cell Size and Scale Chart.
Slide the scale at the bottom to see the size of virus vs bacteria vs other potential contaminates and magnify to greater levels.
The fact that Black Berkey® purification elements have been tested to remove viruses to greater than the EPA purification standards suggests that contaminates larger in size, such as bacteria, should also be removed.
The MS-2 virus is 24-26 nm in size.
The Fr Coliphage virus is 25nm in size.
In other words, they are smaller than the hepatitis virus at 45mn and the rhinovirus at 30nm both referenced on the chart.
For more information on the MS-2 virus: MS-2 – Wikipedia
For more information on Bacteriophages in general: Bacteriophages: Update on application as models for viruses in water
LPC Survival, Ltd. Business Policies
We want your purchase to meet your satisfaction. If you need to return an item due to damage in shipping or a manufacturer defect, we need to know within 3 business days of receiving your order. We will file a claim with the shipping company and/or arrange a replacement of the damaged/defective part(s). If you want to return the item(s) for any other reason, you must call us and notify us within 3 business days of receiving the item(s). Returns are handled on a case-by-case basis and shipping costs are the responsibility of the purchaser. Returns must be sent in the sealed, unopened, original packaging, in new condition and with all original content. If a returned item is determined free of manufacturing defects and re-sellable by us in new condition, then a minimum restocking fee of 15% of the full retail price will be applied and the remaining balance may be refunded.
If an item that we approve for return is not received by our shipping department in new and unused condition, then a return/refund will not be processed for the item and it will be returned to the customer.
Products which are offered as promotional specials/bonuses do not hold cash value for direct/indirect exchanges or bartering. We reserve the right to determine fair compensation on a case-by-case basis for exchanges and to make that determination at our discretion.
We rarely have to deal with refunds to a customer but every business experiences it at some point. As a matter of policy, refunds are issued on a case-by-case basis. Please contact us regarding your refund request after reviewing our returns policy. If you are requesting a refund on the basis of (1) damage in shipping or (2) a manufacturer defect, you must call us and let us know within 3 business days of receiving your order. We reserve the right to first file a claim with the shipping company and/or arrange a replacement of the damaged/defective part(s) before pursuing a refund. If you are requesting a refund for any other reason, then please contact us within 3 business days of receiving your order and after reviewing our returns policy. Refunds requested for any other reason other than specified above will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will incur a restocking-fee, with return shipping to be covered by the customer.
In the event that we authorize a refund, detailed instructions will follow on a case-by-case basis. The refund process can take several days and is offered as a courtesy at our discretion. Refunds will not be issued for used, misused/improper handling or operation of products.